Term Definition
Old Order France's social and political structure that places the king at the top and three estates below him.
King Louis XVI Ruler during early years of the France Revolution.
Marie-Antoinette Austrian wife of King Louis XVI, serving as queen during his reign.
First Estate Small, privileged class made up of Roman Catholic clergy in France.
Second Estate The class in France that was made up of the nobility.
Third Estate The class of 97% of France, made up of the bourgeoisie, artisans, merchants, and peasants.
Bourgeoisie City-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals.
Sansculottes "without knee breeches"; a nickname for workers of the Third Estate.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Document written by the National Assembly advocating equality, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
Radicals People favoring extreme change.
Maximilien Robespierre Mountain member and a leader of the National Convention.
Guillotine An execution device that drops a sharp, heavy blade through the victim's neck.
Counterrevolution A revolution against a government established by a revolution.
Reign of Terror Series of accusations, arrests and executions started by the Mountain.
Napoleon Bonaparte Ambitious military leader who became emperor of France.
Admiral Horatio Nelson British naval commander who won the Battle of the Nile.
Coup d'etat A forced transfer of power.
Plebiscite A question put before all voters.
Continental System A blockade that stopped French and allied ships from trading with Great Britain to prevent that nation from funding the rebellion against Napoleon.
Nationalism A sense of identity and unity as a people.
Czar Alexander I Russian ruler during Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia.
Hundred Days Brief period of renewed glory for Napoleon.
Duke of Wellington Head of the British troops during the Battle of Waterloo.
Indemnity Payment to other countries to compensate for damages caused during war.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand French diplomat who attended the Congress of Vienna on behalf of King Louis XVIII and helped ensure fairness as the new map was drawn.
Prince Klemens von Metternich Austrian prince who strongly influenced policy decision-making at the Congress of Vienna.
Reactionary Opposing progress in hopes of conditions returning to those of earlier times.

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