Term Definition
Hapsburg Empire included the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands; was later divided by Charles I because it was to large for one king to manage well.
Charles V grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain; Was Charles I; became King of Spain, ruler of the Spanish colonies in the Americas, and heir to large Hapsburg empire, which included the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands. He then took on this name.
Philip II son of Charles V; expanded Spanish influence; strengthened the Catholic church; made his power absolute; thanks to silver in Spanish colonies , he made Spain th leading power in Europe.
Absolute Monarch Every part of the government was responsible to the King; ruled with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people;
Divine right the belief that his authority to rule came directly from God
Armada a fleet of ships
El Greco famous painter during Spain's Siglo de Oro (or golden century); his name means "The Greek;" considered to be a master of Spanish painting; born on the Greek island of Crete, he studied in Italy before settling in Spain
Miguel de Cervantes the most important writer of Spain's golden age; wrote Don Quixote which mocks the traditions of Spain's feudal past; considered to be Europe's first modern novel
Huguenots French Protestants of 1500s and 1600s;
Henry IV Huguenot prince who inherited the French throne; fought against the Catholic opposition to gain control of France; to end the conflict he converted to Catholicism;
Edict of Nantes 1598 Henry IV issued this law in order to protect the protestants; this gave the Huguenots religious toleration and other freedoms.
Cardinal Richeliu appointed by King Louis XIII as his chief minister; devoted the next 18 years to strengthening the central government; he sought to destroy the power of the Huguenots and nobles because they did not bow down to royal authority
Louis XIV inherited the throne at age 5; believed in his divine right to rule; he took the sun as the symbol of his absolute power; He said, "I am the state."
intendants royal officials who collected taxes recruited soldiers, and carried out his policies in the provinces
levee a major ritual in Louis XIV's bedroom which means "rising;" high-ranking nobles competed for the honor of holding the royal washbasin or handing the king his diamond-buckled shoes;
balance of power distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong.
James I first Stuart monarch; agreed to rule according to English laws and customs; eventually claimed absolute power and clashed with Parliament over money and foreign policy
Puritans a protestant group who sought to "purify" the church of Catholic practices by calling for simpler services and a more democratic church without bishops; James I sought to "harry them out of this land or else do worse."
Charles I 1625 he inherited the throne; like his father he behaved like an absolute monarch; he imprisoned anyone who was against him without a trial and drained money from the nation; forced to sign the Petition of Right.
English Bill of Rights passed by Parliament before William and Mary could be crowned in 1689; it ensured the superiority of Parliament of the monarchy.
oligarchy a government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people.
Versailles in the countryside near Paris; royal hunting lodge of Louis XIV that was turned into a massive palace; became a symbol of the sun king
mercinaries soldiers for hire; they burned villages, destroyed crops and killed without mercy; they were murderous and torturous little armies
depopulation the war led to this – a reduction in the population.
elector (p.163) one of seven German princes who would choose the Holy Roman emperor.
Ferdinand (p.163) the Catholic Hapsburg king of Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic) who sought to suppress Protestants and to assert royal power over nobles.
Peace of Westphalia (p.165) 1648 a series of treaties which aspired to bring about a general European peace and settle over other international problems
Maria Theresa (p. 166) Hapsburg empress; female heir to Emperor Charles VI; successfully ruled the Hapsburg empire for 40 years. Under her rule, Vienna became the center for music and the arts.
Peter the Great (p. 168) used his power to put Russia on the road to becoming a great modern power; regained the absolute power of earlier tsars of Russia (tsar is a king or ruler of Russia)
Westernization (p.169) the adoption of Western ideas, technology, and culture.
boyars (p.169) landowning nobles in Russia; Peter the Great forced them to serve the state in civilian or military positions

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