Question Answer
what are congress's 3 staffing agencies 1. congressional research service2. gov't accountability office3. congressional budget office
what is crs composed of researchers with advanced degrees
what doe gao do help perform oversight
what does cbo do analyze president's budget
who is samuel foley senator that died
who were the 2 options for the new senator 1. horrace miller (jim taylor's pick)2. henry hill (committee's pick)
how is smith decided as the senator hopper flips a coin and it lands on an article about smith in the paper
who is joseph harrison paine senior senator (served for 20 years)
what is smith's paper called "boy's stuff"
what is smith the head of boy rangers
who is susan paine joseph harrison paine's daughter
who is ms saunders smith's staffer/ aide
when does the senate convene noon
what bill does smith want a national boy's camp
who sat at smith's desk daniel webster
who is richard jones the page that escorts smith
who is governor hopper governor of the state that picks smith
who is jim taylor hopper's boss and the leader of the machine
who is diz moore journalist
who is chick mcgann paine's aide who performs tasks for jim taylor
who was daniel webster senator during the civil war
who is the majority leader agnew
who is the minority leaders barnes
where do the majority/ minority sit opposite sides
who sits over the clock diplomats
how long can tourists watch the senate 5 minutes
who is the calendar set by majority leader
what is the willet creek dam (deficiency) bill build an unneeded dam and sell the land back to the state for graft (profit)
where does the press sit top of senate above vp chair
what is a quorum enough senators are present to do business
what are the steps to get a bill passed (from movie) 1. write "why, where, when, how"2. introduce bill3. refer to committee4. subcommittee research/ report5. goes to HOR/ senate6. goes to conference
what is the steering committee speaker of the house, majority leader, majority whip
what is a bicameral legislature divided into 2 houses
what state is not bicameral nebraska
what is the bicameral legislature a result of connecticut compromise
how is the bicameral legislature a check and balance no bill can be passed unless both house/ senate agree (madisionian democracy)
what are the constitutional powers of the HOR *initiate all revenue bills*pass articles of impeachment
what are the constitutional powers of the senate *confirm presidential nominations*approve treaties*try impeached officials
how many members in HOR/ senate 435/100
what is the term for HOR/ senate 2 years/ 6 years
which chamber has a larger constituency senate
which chamber has more prestige senate
what is HOR specialized on budget/ more specialized overall
what is senate specialized on foreign affairs/ less specialized overall
which chamber is seniority more important HOR
which chamber has unlimited debate senate
which chamber is more institutionalized/ organized house
what is the house rules committee committee that reviews most bills coming from a house committee before they go to the full house
what is the house rules committee also called committee of the whole
where must money bills be passed HOR
which chamber is more conservative HOR
describe the framers' thoughts of each chamber senate- protect elite interestshouse- protect masses
what is a filibuster strategy unique to the senate whereby opponents to a piece of legislation can use their right to unlimited debate to prevent the senate voting on a bill
what can halt a filibuster 60 members present and voting
what is the speaker of the house *only legislative office mandated by the constitution *chosen by majority party*2nd in line to secede*most important leader in house
who is the speaker of the house paul ryan
what is a junior senator senator who has served less time
which chamber is it easier to move up (gain more power) senate
who is leadership in the chambers chosen by parties
what is the HOR majority leader speaker's partisan ally (leads senate)
what are the majority leaders roles 1. schedule bills2. influence committee assignments3. round up votes
who elects the majority leader their own party
who is the HOR majority leader kevin mccarthy of CA
what is the whip party leader who works with majority/ minority leader to lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to the passage of a bill
what is the minority leader principal leader of minority party
who is the HOR minority leader nancy pelosi of CA
what is the VP's only constitutionally defined job serve as president of the senate
when do VPs use their senatorial power to break ties
what is the senate majority leader serves as workhorse of party by corralling votes, scheduling floor action, and influencing committee assignments
who is the senate majority leader mitch mcconnell of kentucky
who is the senate minority leader chuck schumer of ny
can leaders administer punishments to those who don't support the party's stand no
what is the majority leader jokingly referred to as and by whom majority pleader (rob dole)
who is the HOR majority whip steve scalise of LA
who is the HOR minority whip steny hoyer of MD
who is the senate majority whip john cornyn of TX
who is the senate minority whip dick durbin of IL
who has more power in senate– the majority leader or VP majority leader
which party has a majority in congress republican
who appoints the president of the senate each day majority leader
what are the 4 types of committes 1. standing2. joint3. conference4. select
what are standing committees permanent committees
what are subcommittees smaller units of committee created out of the committee membership
what does every standing committee have subcommittee
when do joint committees meet beginning of bill writing process
what are joint committees exist in a few policy areas (economy/ taxation) and draw membership from HOR/ senate
when do conference committees meet end of bill writing process
what are conference committees formed when there is a problem between the bill passed in HOR/ senate
who appoints conference committees and who do they consist of party leaders; members of each house
what are select committees temporary committees for NEW problems that have a specific focus
what do select committees have subcommittees
how many bills are submitted in a term 11,000
where does a bill go directly to a subcommittee to rewrite or pass
what happens after the subcommittee votes on the bill goes to the full chamber/ floor for debate/ voting
what is legislative oversight congress's monitoring of the executive branch bureaucracy and its administration of policy through committee hearings/ passing bills
what 2 things does congress do (generally) 1. legislative oversight2. legislation
where do republicans especially have an advantage HOR
why are committees often disproportionate have the same partisan ratio as the house so republicans have a majority
what is MOST influential in the bill passing process subcommittees
how long is a congress term 2 years
how long is a congress session 1 year
how many bills are passed in a term 200-400
who can introduce bills congress members
what happens at the start of each session bill process restarts
what does it mean to "pigeonhole" a bill set aside to let die
which chamber has fewer standing committees senate
what standing committees are shared between the senate/ house 1. appropriations2. armed services3. budget4. judiciary5. veterans' affairs
what do the different standing committees often do overlap
what 3 goals do members want to achieve from joining committees 1. reelection2. influence in congress3. opportunity to impress constituents (help state)
how do congress members get reelected appeal to constituents
what is the most powerful standing committee appropriations
how do members get on committees communicate preferences to congressional leaders
what 2 things influence committee assignments 1. how you've treated leader2. seniority
what are committee chairs lead committees and have important influence on congressional agenda
what things do committee chairs do *schedule hearings*hire staff*appoint subcommittees*manage committee bills
what is the seniority system rule for picking committee chairs in effect until 1970s: members who had served on committee the longest and whose party controlled the chamber became chair
what happened in the 1970s in regards to committees young members of congress rebelled so both branches permitted members to vote on committee chairs
describe the seniority system today still the general rule but more liberal
which are more important in congress– formal or informal organizations equally important
what dominates the informal organization of congress caucuses
what are caucuses group of members in congress sharing some interest or characteristics; many are composed of members from both parties/ houses
how many caucuses are there 500
what is the simple goal of caucuses promote the interests of which they are formed
what are the 2 most influential caucuses hispanic caucus/ black caucus
about how many staff members does each member of congress have 20-50
how many individuals serve on personal staffs of members of congress 11,000
how many interns work on capitol hill 4,000
what are the 2 functions of staff 1. casework2. legislative functions
what is casework constituent services (IRS/SS/ veterans affairs)
what are legislative functions drafting legislation, meeting with lobbyists, negotiating agreements, writing questions, summarizing bills, briefing legislators
how many staff members do committees employ 2,000
what do committee staff members do legislative oversight
describe washington interns unpaid
who are incumbents those who already serve office
what is the most predictable aspect of congressional elections incumbents usually win
describe the reelection changes of house v. senate incumbents 90% v. 88%
which chamber has less incumbent reelection senate
why do senators have less incumbent reelection 1. less personal contact with base2. more media coverage3. held more accountable4. draw more visible challengers with $
what shows that incumbents feel vulnerable raise campaign costs
what is the franking privilege congress members can send mail for free
what 3 elections do members of congress engage in to help reelection 1. advertising2. credit-claiming3. position taking
describe most congressional advertising in between elections in the form of visible contact at home
what is credit claiming enhancing standing with constituents through service
why shouldn't congressional candidates stress policy can alienate voters and can't show that they were responsible for policy
what are 2 forms of credit claiming 1. casework2. federal funds
what is casework cutting through bureaucratic red tape by giving people what they have a right to get
what is the pork barrel composed of federal projects, grants, contracts available to state/ local gov't, businesses, and colleges
which chamber's incumbents are more well known HOR
when must congress members take positions when they vote/ answer questions
why are opponents to congressional incumbents so weak 1. scared off2. not well known/ funded
how much money did each chamber's incumbent candidates spent HOR- $1.6 million senate- $11.5 million
what do incumbents benefit the most from in regard to campaign spending less through their own spending, more from how much the challenger spends
what are open seat no incumbent— candidate who spends more wins
how much do incumbents outspend challengers 2-1
what is redistricting when state legislatures redraw boundaries to ensure majorities in congressional districts
what things can help challengers 1. incumbent scandal2. reapportionment
what can stability from incumbent experience lead to expertise and less policy change
what would a term limit do increase turnover
what was the new jersey plan each state should be equally represented in congress (william patterson)
what was the virginia plan each state's representation should be based on their share of the population (edmund randolph)
what was the connecticut compromise 2 houses of congress- senate follows VG plan and HOR follows NJ plan (roger sherman/ william johnson)
what did the articles of confederation call for *small state power*no president*one chamber legislature (NJ)*no courts
what was the connecticut compromise intended to do and what did it actually do maximize equality; give more power to smaller states (senate)
which chamber has more power and why senate:*ratifies treaties*confirms nominations*hears trials of impeachment
what are the powers of the purse 1. levy taxes2. pay debts3. borrow money4. coin money/ regulate value5. regulate interstate/ foreign commerce
which chamber did the connecticut compromise give more power to senate
what was the main goal of the framers to agree on a constitution
who WERE senators elected by state legislature (elite)
who WERE representatives elected by people
when did the senate become elected by the people 1913
when was partisan polarization at an all time high autumn of 2013
what happened in autumn of 2013 federal gov't shut down for 16 days because legislators couldn't agree on a budget (republicans didn't want to increase revenues and democrats wouldn't cut expenditures)
what did madison want in congress gridlock
what is moving the senate like "trying to push a wet noodle"
what are the 2 GENERAL roles of congress 1. center of policymaking 2. principal representative branch
what is a main criticism of congress too insulated from citizens and makes policy to suit the few
who set forth the idea of implied powers john marshall (justice in mcculloch vs. maryland)
what is the elastic clause final paragraph of article 1 section 8 that gives implied powers to congress
what are congress's 3 main problems 1. too responsive to constituents (interest groups– hyperpluralism)2. too insulated from ordinary citizens (elitism)3. source of gov't expansion
what are implied powers powers of federal gov't that go beyond those enumerated in the constitution
what is an example of an implied power air force
what are enumerated powers powers of federal gov't listed explicitly in the constitution
describe what responsibility madison wanted the gov't to have responsive to majority but protect private property
how did madison place most of gov't beyond majority control 1. separation of powers2. checks/ balances
what was the only institution that madison put in direct control of the majority HOR- elected every 2 years
why did madison give senators a longer term to give them the power to fix house bills
in madison's plan, how was the president elected voters voted for electoral college who voted for presidents
why is congress not a glamorous job 14 hour days
what is a congress member's salary $174,000
what are the requirements to become senator 1. 30 years old2. citizen 9 years
what are the requirements to become representative 1. 25 years old2. citizen 7 years
is there a shortage of people wanting to run for congress no
how often is the whole house reelected 2 years
how often is the senate reelected 33 senators every 2 years
who was strom thurmond 99 y/o senator
what are the 4 most common prior jobs of congress members 1. politics2. law3. business4. education
why is there a prominence of lawyers in congress law attracts politics and provides flexibility and finances to run
what % of african americans are in the house v. the population 10% v. 13%
what % of hispanics are in the house v. the population 7% v. 17%
what group is the most underrepresented in congress women
what % of women are in the house v. the population 19% v. over 50%
describe congress members' demographics in general *white*upper middle class*middle aged*protestant *men
what is descriptive representation congress members should mirror their constituents (i.e. whites represent whites)
what is substantive representative congress members should speak for issues of groups that they are not members of (i.e. wealthy advocates for poor)
which senator was a prime example of substantive representation and how teddy kennedy– represented african americans and poor
how much of congress altogether is women 1/5th
describe the running chances of women with children less likely to run
when else are women less likely to run if they feel they have poor odds
when are women more likely to run if they sense political opportunity
what happens if a senator dies the governor of his state appoints someone to serve the term
describe women's ambition to run for congress compared to men generally less ambitious
why are women's winning chances lower more scrutinized so they must be more qualified
why is congress not a successful representative institution *american elite*leadership chosen from within*small states given more power
what is the consequence of members spending so much time serving individual constituents they fail to represent collective interest
what is representativeness being too responsive to constituents over national interest
what is effectiveness making national decisions
what does the pork barrel include special projects
what model of representation is present in congress today instructed delegate
why is direct democracy impossible population is too big
describe the wealth of members of congress millionaires
describe the popularity of the speaker of the house today unpopular
what are 2 obstacles to good representation 1. constituent service2. reelection campaign
what size of gov't does congress approve of big government
where is the rules committee HOR
what are the 6 steps a bill has to go through to pass 1. bill introduction2. committee action3. floor action4. conference action5. floor action (on conference bill)6. presidential decision
what is another title for the president chief legislator
what would be the framers' opinion on the president's title of chief legislator didn't like (separation of powers)
what type of presidents have a higher chance of getting their way popular
where are differences between the parties sharpest economic/ social welfare issues
what is increasing in congress polarization
describe the polarization of parties pull apart ideologically but become more homogeneous internally
what is the effect of party polarization harder to reach compromises
what are trustees legislators who use their best judgment to make policy in interests of people
what are instructed delegates mirror preferences of constituents
what was jfk's profiles in courage book on trustees in history
what is daniel webster in terms of legislative identity trustee
how many lobbyists are there 12,000
how much did lobbyists spend in 2013 $3 billion
who often become lobbyists former congress/ staff members
what 3 things do lobbyists often provide 1. crucial policy info2. assurances of financial aid3. ghostwritten statements
what is easier– lobbying for change or lobbying against change? against change
what have disclosure requirements done to lobbyists nothing (don't matter)
why did caro choose lbj to study wanted to know how he found power in the senate (wanted to study power)
what was significant about lbj as majority leader best majority leader in history of senate
how does caro feel personally about lbj doesn't like or dislike him but thinks he was a "legislative genius"
why was the passage of the civil rights bill of 1957 considered hopeless from the outset southern democrats were determined to stop the passage of the bill as they had done for the past 82 years since reconstruction
how was the CR57 bill originally introduced righted many of the wrongs against african americans
how did the CR57 bill end up giving attorney general new powers to enforce the rights of african americans to vote
was CR57 originally stronger or weaker stronger
what did passage of the bill hinge on amendment giving a person charged with contempt for disobeying a judge's order the right to a trial by jury
did the south want the jury amendment yes
what division did the jury amendment create in the senate liberals felt that it made the bill null and void while the south wasn't satisfied
how did lbj assume himself as emily post acted friendly and civilly towards members of the senate
why did lbj assume himself as emily post to prevent the CR fight from generating into hostility and losing votes
did lbj sincerely want african americans to have equal rights yes
who was emily post author on etiquette
why did lbj assume a low profile wanted to convince both southerners and liberals in the background
according to george brown what did lbj have a knack for convincing people on opposite sides of an issue that he was on their side
how did lbj speak to the northerners harder accent without southern drawl and persuaded them that having a weak CR bill was better than having none at all since they could add to it
how did lbj speak to the southerners used a southern drawl/ slang and convinced the southerners that the jury amendment would cause the bill to have limited repercussions and that if there was no bill the situation would escalate
what did lbj tell hubert humphrey the most important part of the bill was giving african americans the right to vote because it would cause politicians to listen to them
what did humphrey think was the most important part of the bill individual rights (buses, restaurants)
what did lbj tell the south about a filibuster didn't have enough votes
what did lbj tell the north about a filibuster couldn't beat a filibuster
what are some examples of the johnson treatment *using his health issues to make senators uncomfortable*grasp hands, poke chests, grab lapels *use threats (physical and verbal)
when was lbj majority leader 1955-1960
who was president when lbj was majority leader eisenhower
describe eisenhower *5 star general*recruited by both parties*ran after truman*republican (moderate)*president 52-60
who was sam rayburn democratic speaker of house for 50 years
what did lbj, rayburn, and eisenhower have in common all from texas
what support did lbj need to run for president in 1960 northern liberals
what chamber would the CR57 bill have a better chance in and why HOR because of the population from NY, CA, PA
where did southerners have the most control in senate as committee chairs
describe the 2 ways that smith yielded to paine 1. yielded and gave up his time2. yielded for a question and got to keep his time
what does taylor offer smith for falling in line a job
what is the deficiency bill an example of pork barrel
what does paine accuse smith of owning the land of willet creek dam
what committee tries to expel smith from senate committee of privileges and elections
what section of the bill was graft 40
what would happen if the president of the senate called for a quorom during a filibuster and there wasn't one senator who was filibustering could go home and start next day
how does taylor use his control of the newspaper won't print pro smith stuff
who is henry president of the senate
what does smith read while filibustering declaration of independence, constitution
how long does smith talk 23 hrs 16 minutes
what does paine bring in at end of filibuster 50,000 hate telegrams
what was clayton smith's job root out corruption as a lawyer
who was ken allen taylor's man who testifies against smith

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